The C4U Project

Advanced Carbon Capture for steel industries integrated in CCUS Clusters

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A holistic interdisciplinary approach to the integration of CO2 capture
in the iron and steel industry as part of the CCUS chain.

Funded by the European Union H2020 programme, the C4U project spans demonstration of two highly efficient solid based CO2 capture technologies for optimal integration into an iron and steel plant and detailed consideration of the safety, environmental, societal, policy and business aspects for successful incorporation into the North Sea Port CCUS industrial cluster in Belgium and the Netherlands.

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Technology Readiness

C4U elevates two CO2 capture technologies from TRL5 to TRL7 for decarbonising blast furnace gas and other carbon containing gases (WP1 & WP2). In combination, these two technologies will target up to 90% of the total emissions from the steel plant. In addition, C4U analyses the optimal design for full-scale integration of such technologies in industrial plants operated by the world’s largest iron and steel manufacturer, ArcelorMittal (WP3).

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Transportation, Storage and Utilization opportunities

Using a whole system approach, we account for the impact of the quality of the captured CO2 on the safety and operation of the CO2 pipeline transportation and storage infrastructure, based on integration into the North Sea Port CCUS industrial cluster (WP4).

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Economic impact & Life Cycle Assessment

We perform techno-economic and life cycle assessments across the entire CCUS chain (WP3 & WP4) based on the integration of our CO2 capture technologies into the ArcelorMittal steelworks located in the North Sea Port industrial cluster.

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Societal Readiness

Recognising that CCUS will not materialise in the EU without overcoming social-economic barriers, we explore societal readiness through research and engagement with the variety of relevant end-users, local stakeholders and policy makers (WP5).

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Business Models

Given that the greatest barriers to the development of CCUS in Europe are commercial, rather than technological issues, we develop novel business models to ease deployment (WP6). They aim to establish the long-term business case by considering the concerns of various stakeholders and identifying optimal scenarios to overcome financial risks.

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The Latest

Bilateral Project Meeting

Bilateral meeting between C4U and REALISE CCUS Horizon2020 projects

The C4U and REALISE Horizon 2020 consortia held their first bilateral meeting on the 12th April to discuss the synergies between the application of CCUS in their respective industrial sectors – iron & steel production and refineries.

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D6.1 Report summarising findings from the literature review on CCUS risks and challenges, and radical innovation and market creation

The C4U project is a Horizon 2020 funded programme that is working towards advancing two CO2 capture technologies through demonstrations at an iron and steel plant in the North Sea Port, and detailed consideration of safety and environmental factors. In addition to...

A Trans-European CO2 Transportation Infrastructure for CCUS: Opportunities and Challenges

The report “A Trans-European CO2 Transportation Infrastructure for CCUS: Opportunities & Challenges” aims to provide a technical overview on CO2 transportation, in particular the use of pipeline networks in industrial clusters, and it stresses the importance of...

Project Partners



Radboud University

University of Manchester
Politecnico di Milano
Element Energy
Canmet Energy
Dalian University

Johnson Matthey
University of Sheffield