The application of CCS in the iron and steel industry faces particular challenges for achieving European CO2 transportation and storage in meeting CO2 stream impurity limit specifications due to the unique and diverse composition of the steelworks off-gases targeted for CO2 capture and the separation efficiency of proposed CO2 capture solutions. This paper reviews the range and levels of compounds that could form potential CO2 impurities in steelworks off-gases and provides estimates of the quality of CO2 products obtained in primary CO2 capture steps from Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) using different technologies of Pressure-Swing Adsorption (PSA) and amine scrubbing. Published CO2 specifications from European transportation and storage operators are reviewed and compared. Additional suitable purification steps that are needed in order to reduce the levels of impurities from primary CO2 product streams in order to achieve European CO2 impurity limit specifications are identified, characterised and the associated cost implications discussed.

This paper by R. Porter et al. was presented at TCCS-11 – Trondheim Conference on CO2 Capture, Transport and Storage (June 2021).