The C4U project is a Horizon 2020 funded programme that is working towards advancing two CO2 capture technologies through demonstrations at an iron and steel plant in the North Sea Port, and detailed consideration of safety and environmental factors. In addition to the successful demonstration of novel technologies, C4U is also focused on investigating how these technologies may be adopted and integrated within industrial clusters such as that of the North Sea Port. In this aspect, the project will look at both societal readiness and public policy (work package 5, WP5) and the long-term business models that may be used for successful CCUS adoption (work package 6, WP6).

The findings presented in this deliverable (D6.1) form the initial basis for the WP6 business model analysis that will be conducted by Element Energy (lead) and Radboud University.

The report consists of three components: sustainable business model innovation; CCUS risks and challenges; CCUS case studies. Each of these components have been investigated via a desk-based literature review, combining commentary from academic studies, industry focused reports, and project websites.