Work Packages

C4U will be carried out in 8 interacting and coupled Work Packages (WPs). WPs 1-6 deal with technical development, scientific, business, societal readiness and public policy activities, whilst WP7-8 are concerned with project dissemination, exploitation and management.

WP1: DISPLACE process for reheating ovens


TRL7 demonstration of the DISPLACE CO2 capture technology from process gas streams in the iron and steel industry that have been depleted of residual chemical energy, off gas from reheating ovens (demonstrated), hot stove, and sinter grate.

  • The detailed, design, construction and commissioning of the DISPLACE technology expanding the use of already existing infrastructure at Swerim for a cost-effective approach (i.e. 650m pipeline, 2 reheating oven and CO2 capture pilot).
  • The operation of the DISPLACE CO2 capture pilot plant on oxy-combusted Blast Furnace Gas (BFG), also using a 3t Steel/hr rated Walking Beam Reheating Furnace fitted for oxy-combustion of BFG from a steel mill. This campaign will capture CO2 for 1000 operational hours (24/7) and includes validation on the effect of this process on steel quality. The furnace has a at nominal flow of 2500 Nm3/hr, and the DISPLACE unit 400 Nm3/hr.
  • TRL7 Benchmark the use of N2/H2 mixture derived from industrial BFG with pre-combustion removal of CO2 in a Chamber Reheating Furnace in a 1000 hours campaign (24/7), including experimental validation of the effect on the steel quality. The BFG flow will be 800 Nm3/hr. The results also validate N2/H2 product usage of the CASOH technology in WP2.

The interpretation and scale-up of the reactor results through adequate models at particle and reactor level validated up to TRL7 (Note: process models for large scale integrated systems will be developed in WP3).

WP2: CASOH process for blast furnace gas


  • The detailed design, construction and commissioning of the CASOH TRL7 prototype.
  • The operation of the pilot at ArcelorMittal industrial GasLab site, using real Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) for the H2-N2 gas production and BFG or Natural Gas (NG) for regeneration, accumulating more than 2000 h under realistic, high temperature, highly cycling operating conditions (i.e. validating the performance and cycling behaviour of the functional materials).
  • The experimental investigation of improved versions of the process using steel mill off-gases (Oxy-BFG, Shaft Off gases from Direct Reduced Iron processes, Coke Oven Gas), reactor types (fluidized bed, packed bed) and functional Ca-Cu materials with improved mechanical and reactivity performances.

The interpretation and scale up of the reactor results through adequate models at particle and reactor level validated up to TRL7 (Note: process models for large-scale integrated systems will be developed in WP3).

WP3: Integration of CO2 capture technologies in a steel plant


The aim of this WP is the design of the C4U capture technologies at industrial scale and the assessment of the energy and costs of the integrated process in the steelwork plant operation. This WP will determine the KPIs of the C4U technologies. Specific objectives for this WP are as follows:

  • Perform the design of the full-scale process through the detailed modelling tools validated in WP1 and WP2 to achieve a CO2 carbon capture rate of 89% with respect to conventional steel plant.
  • Overall energy analysis of the fully integrated technology with the steelwork plant resulting with a Specific Primary Energy Consumption for CO2 avoided (SPECCA) below 2 MJ/kgCO2 proving the low energy use in the C4U technologies.
  • Techno-economic optimisation of the C4U technologies in integrated steel plant and the CO2 valorisation to reduce to Cost of CO2 avoided below 45 €/tCO2 corresponding to a cost reduction of at least 15% with respect to state-of-the-art solutions.
  • To scale-up the design of the two CO2 capture processes when integrated in the full-scale steel plant, including the full sizing and costing of the components.
  • Determine the energy and cost penalty vs. CO2 purity functions for the C4U processes, as well as for the reference case, to be used in the optimisation of the industrial CCS cluster (WP4).
WP4: Integration of CO2 capture in industrial CCUS clusters


  • To develop a multi-source CO2 pipeline network flow model for predicting the CO2 fluid flow behaviour including quality and fluid phase at any point along the pipeline network as well as  those at the injection point into the storage site for the North Sea Port industrial CCUS cluster.
  • To employ the multi-source flow model developed and the CO2 quality vs capture cost data obtained in WP3 to:
  1. Determine optimal tolerable levels of impurities in CO2 streams at the network collection points meeting the associated pipeline network and storage site operational and safety constraints.
  2. Evaluate the potential for C4U capture technologies and their benchmarks to contribute to reducing the cost of decarbonising the industrial North Sea Port CCUS cluster under the 2030 & 2050 CO2 emission reduction targets.
  • To perform numerical simulations to determine the collective impact of the captured CO2 mixtures containing the various impurities on the long-term storage site integrity following injection into the depleted gas field in the North Sea.
  • Where applicable, match the captured CO2 purity and composition from each of the C4U capture units to specific CO2 utilisation applications to lower overall costs and reduce the environmental impact.

To develop and apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods to determine the environmental impact of the C4U capture technologies in view of their future scale-up and opportunities for integration with other carbon intensive manufacturing industries at cluster level.

WP5: Societal readiness and public policy


  • Constructing an effective narrative and a framework model for CCUS in order to contribute to societal readiness for CCUS in a local steel plant and the North Sea Port CCUS Industrial Cluster, and improve the likelihood of generating public support;
  • Analysing needs and concerns of stakeholders and end-users, and concerns associated with industrial CCUS clusters, with the aim of lowering the barriers for the wider uptake of CCUS;
  • Identify and analyse public policy options and implications that address the needs and concerns of stakeholders and end-users and that are in line with an engaging narrative for CCUS, with the aim of allowing for cross-country learning on how to incentivise CCUS in a legitimate way.
WP6: Long term business models


  • Market, stakeholder and scenario analysis and selection of Business Innovation Model framework.
  • Developing business models investment/funding strategies, revenue models, cash flow and risk analysis, ownership user/customer value propositions, operations, and strategic marketing plans.
WP7: Dissemination, communication and public engagement


  • To effectively involve and communicate with five stakeholder groups (local communities, local schools and universities, civil society including labour, policy makers and funding agencies) and the media.
  • To showcase and promote the C4U results and cluster and exploit future CCUS technologies by interacting with projects working on other segments of the CCUS value chain.

To facilitate the commercialisation of the project’s results thus maximising its impact

WP8: Project Management


This WP is tasked with the effective administration, management and governance of C4U commensurate with its size. This includes duties covering all aspects of project monitoring, reporting, financial and contractual administration, communication within the consortium and implementing the project’s governance and decision-making structures. The specific objectives of this WP are:

  • To ensure the efficient and effective management of C4U through the implementation of the project’s governance and decision-making structures;
  • To ensure effective communications both internal (within the consortium) and external (liaison with the European Commission and third parties);
  • To monitor and report on the project’s progress and identify any aspects requiring attention to the appropriate bodies;
  • To ensure that the work and tasks are completed on time, within budget and according to high quality standards;
  • To monitor progress between planned and actual activities, identify any aspects requiring attention to ensure goals are achieved within the stated time frame;
  • To ensure that the contractual, project management and financial aspects of C4U are carried out in an efficient, transparent and correct manner and in accordance with European Commission rules;
  • To provide effective linkage and communication between the European Commission, partners and other interested parties;
  • To ensure that gender equality matters are adequately addressed.