The C4U Project

Advanced Carbon Capture for steel industries integrated in CCUS Clusters

C4U Project

Advanced Carbon Capture for steel industries integrated in CCUS Clusters

Funded by the European Union H2020 programme, C4U is a holistic interdisciplinary project addressing all the essential elements required for the optimal integration of CO2 capture in the iron and steel industry as part of the CCUS chain. This spans demonstration of two highly efficient solid based CO2 capture technologies for optimal integration into an iron and steel plant and detailed consideration of the safety, environmental, societal, policy and business aspects for successful incorporation into the North Sea Port CCUS industrial cluster in Belgium and the Netherlands.

Photo: Paul Cobden, Swerim, Sweden

C4U elevates from TRL5 to TRL7 two highly energy-efficient high-temperature solid-sorbent CO2 capture technologies for decarbonising blast furnace gas and other carbon containing gases. For the first time, in combination, these two technologies will target up to 90% of the total emissions from the steel plant that come from a variety of sources. In addition, C4U analyses the optimal design for full-scale integration of such technologies in industrial plants operated by the world’s largest iron and steel manufacturer, ArcelorMittal.

Using a whole system approach, we account for the impact of the quality of the captured CO2 on the safety and operation of the CO2 pipeline transportation and storage infrastructure whilst exploring utilisation opportunities based on integration into the North Sea Port CCUS industrial cluster. A candidate for the fourth Union list of Projects of Common Interest, CO2TransPorts aims to establish the necessary infrastructure to facilitate the large-scale capture, transport and storage of CO2 from three of the most important ports in Europe; North Sea, Rotterdam and Antwerp and to transport and store up to 10 Mt/yr of CO2. Approximately 20% (2 Mt/yr) of this CO2 is planned to be supplied by the C4U partner, ArcelorMittal in Ghent (Belgium) via the North Sea Port CCUS cluster.

Photo: Adrienguh on Unsplash

Recognising the fact that CCUS will not materialise in the EU without overcoming social-economic barriers, we analyse the economic impact & perform life cycle assessment based on the integration of our capture technologies in the North Sea Port CCUS industrial cluster and explore societal readiness through research and engagement with the variety of relevant end-users, local stakeholders and policy makers. Given that the greatest barriers to the development of CCUS in Europe are commercial, rather than technological issues, we develop novel business models for facilitating deployment so that the long-term business case can be established through consideration of the concerns of a myriad of stakeholders and identification of optimal scenarios for overcoming financial risks.

Project Partners



Radboud University

University of Manchester
Politecnico di Milano
Element Energy
Canmet Energy
Dalian University
Climate Strategies
Johnson Matthey
University of Sheffield